Level III Multiverse: Many Worlds Hypothesis (MWH) of quantum mechanics. Every possible particle interaction outcome actually happens. Every particle interaction that is not observed in the universe that we observe actually happens in another that is “split” from this one.
Level IV Multiverse: The Ultimate Ensemble. This consists of any conceivable parallel universe and any set of mathematical descriptions to describe the physical laws.
These theories are quite interesting in and of themselves. It is very thought-provoking within the fine-tuning realm of discussion, where it tends to get the most attention. What’s more interesting is how this would pertain to dualism (materiality and immateriality) and divine omniscience. I have not seen any research on the issues I have, which is why I intend to study this for my graduate thesis. I have a few questions and problems concerning these multiverse interpretations…
- How can dualism be true if either third or fourth level multiverse interpretations are true? (From here on when I refer to “multiverse” I am referring to the third and fourth level). Let’s assume that there is an immaterial self and a person is not merely an ensemble of physical reactions. If I am a mind then there is a non-physical aspect that relates to my physical body. If every [physical] quantum interaction actually happens then how would that relate to the [non-physical] mind? If my body exists in other universes/dimensions then where is my mind? If the multiverse is true, is it a defeater of dualism?
- Suppose there is no conflict with dualism, does the multiverse make salvific universalism actual? If every possible circumstance happens do all come to repentance and trust in Jesus Christ?
- Follow up to 2, does the multiverse make salvation impossible? If every possible circumstance happens, did Jesus die making salvation possible?
- Is the multiverse a defeater of divine middle knowledge? Moment 1 of God’s knowledge (natural knowledge) God knows every necessary truth and possibility (moments are logical moments not chronological). Moment 3 (free knowledge), God knows what is happening and what will happen. In between the two moments, middle knowledge, God knows everything that would happen given any set of circumstances (everything in the subjunctive mood, usually associated with human free agency). If in the multiverse every possible outcome actually happens are there no logical moments other than God’s first moment, natural knowledge? Perhaps God knows what would happen given a particular universe but that only seems to push the question back one step.
- The Quantum World, Kenneth Ford
- Many Worlds in One, Alexander Vilenkin
- The Only Wise God, William Lane Craig